Summer dressing of vegetable crops in the open field
In order to fully meet the summer and help plants form a full-fledged crop, it is necessary to carry out the necessary preparatory work in the winter:
- check the garden pharmacy and purchase the missing mineral fertilizers, including complex fertilizers with trace elements;
- individual trace elements, still unconventional in vegetable growing - iodine and boric acid, baking soda; for top dressing you will need natural yeast, some biological products (Baikal EM-1, Ekomik fruitful and others); in the fall, a stock of ash from burning wood waste and other organic waste should be prepared.
You should also look at the layout of vegetable crops in garden crop rotation. Separate into separate groups of culture, in which the phases and time of feeding are the same (for example: the budding phase is the first ten days of May, the growth phase of the ovaries is the second ten days of June).
Read more about crop rotation in the material “Five crop rotation methods for a summer cottage”.
All preparatory work will free summer time directly to carry out the planned work, the execution time of which is more appropriate to plan for the weekend (so that there is an opportunity to "rush slowly").
The main fertilizer application is in autumn and spring.
As a rule, the main dose and types of fertilizers are applied for autumn preparation or divided into autumn and presowing / presowing spring. But these nutrients may not be enough for plants, especially those forming large biomass and crops. In order not to impoverish the soil, turning it over time into a whitish sandy loam, the earth needs to return the nutrients removed. Moreover, the return should be in the form of organics, which certain groups of soil microorganisms decompose to chelate forms of salts used by plants.
Types of feeding during the growing season
During the growing season, mainly root and foliar top dressing is used. Root top dressing is usually performed with water-soluble complex fertilizers in solid or dissolved form, and foliar - only with working solutions.
When root top dressing with liquid fertilizers, they must complete the treatment by flushing the solution from plants to prevent burns to the aboveground mass. Root dressing is carried out in the first half of the summer season until the rows and row-spacings are closed, and then they switch only to extra-root ones in green plants.
Foliar top dressing spend the entire growing season.
Types of fertilizers for fertilizing
During top dressing, plants should receive proper nutrition with the elements most needed in a certain phase of development. The best for top dressing are ammonium nitrate, potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate, double superphosphate, urea, micronutrient fertilizers, Kemira-universal.
Currently, mineral fertilizers are produced, balanced with the requirements of certain crops. So, Kemira is produced in the form of vegetable and potato kemira, tomato agrotuk for tomatoes, Cucumber for cucumbers, for beans, peas containing potassium, molybdenum, magnesium, boron, for root crops - Vegetable and others.
What can not be fed?
In preparation for the summer season, it is necessary to clearly state what top dressing will be carried out (root, extra root), in which phases and an approximate list of fertilizers for the tank mix.
During the summer period, top dressing is not used for vegetable green or spice-flavor crops. For them, the main fertilizer application is sufficient (radishes, onions on a green feather, dill, parsley, salads, sorrel and others).
Phases of feeding in open ground
Traditionally, root dressing is carried out in the following phases:
- for 10-12 days of mass seedlings of sown vegetables,
- 2 weeks after planting seedlings in open ground,
- in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering,
- after flowering,
- in the phase of ovarian growth
- with multiple harvesting (cucumbers, tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplant) - after the next harvest of fruits.
Foliar top dressing is carried out, as a rule, in 5-6 days after root.
Urgent foliar feeding is carried out with an obvious starvation of crops, which is determined by the state of the aerial mass, in particular, leaves.
The best period for plant treatments is the morning period up to 10 hours and the afternoon after 15 hours.
Recommended feeding systems for groups of crops are advisory in nature, mainly for beginner gardeners. Experienced owners, as a rule, have their own best practices for periods and methods of feeding.
Traditional feeding system
In the phase of mass shoots of vegetable crops, top dressing is carried out with ammonia fertilizers at the rate of 8-12 g / linear meter. Fertilizers are applied in the middle of the row-spacings, they are covered with a layer of soil with subsequent watering. If the soil is infertile, then it is more practical to fertilize the nitrophos in the same dose.
Seedlings of vegetable crops in the open ground are fed for the first time with a nitroammophos norm of 10-15 g / linear meter, followed by watering and mulching the soil.
In the following phases of plant development, top dressing is carried out according to the intended phases. Vegetables require the greatest amount of nutrients during budding, overgrowth of the aerial mass, and during the phase of growth of the fruits. During these periods, top dressing is mandatory, including foliar. The following are plant nutrition for crop groups in the summer.
Feeding pumpkin crops in the summer
For the first time, cucumbers, zucchini, squash, squash are fed with dry nitrogen-containing fertilizers or a nitrophos in the phase of 3-4 unfolded leaves, about 2-3 g for a bush of cucumber and 3-4 g for the rest of pumpkin. You can breed nitroammofosku or Kemir. Dissolve 25-30 g of fertilizers in 10 l of water and pour 1.5-2.0 l / sq from the watering can under the root. m landings.
The second top dressing is carried out in the budding phase, preferably with ashes in the aisles or with a solution of organic matter. If the soil is 70-80% covered with green mass of plants, then insist for 2 days 2 cups of ash in 10 liters of water and pour from a watering can without a nozzle, trying to get under the bush. In the infusion of ash, you can add the drug "Ideal" or another, containing trace elements. If there is organic fertilizer, then dilute 0.5 kg of manure or chicken droppings in 10 liters of water, insist for 1-2 days and pour under the root. After top dressing, be sure to wash off the top dressing solution from the leaves.
After flowering, in the phase of mass overgrowth of the ovaries, the pumpkin is fertilized with nitrophos, a mixture of urea with potassium fertilizers, using potassium sulfate. Per sq. m make 6-10 g of fertilizer. After 4-6 days after each root dressing, foliar solutions of trace elements can be carried out according to the recommendations for the preparation of the solution.
Tomatoes, bell peppers and eggplants in all phases, falling in the period from May to June, are fed with nitrophos or other complex fertilizer. During this period, foliar dressing with a solution of Kemira with the addition of boric acid or the "Giant" preparation is mandatory. Good results are provided by top dressing with slurry or chicken droppings when dissolved in 8-10 and 12-15 liters of water, respectively.
Recently, the results of using non-traditional solutions that have a beneficial effect on nightshade have appeared on the pages of recommendations. 30 drops of iodine, a teaspoon without top of boric acid and a dessert spoon without top of drinking soda are dissolved in 10 l of water. You can add a tablespoon of ammonium nitrate. The tank mixture is thoroughly stirred and treated with plants. Starting in July, solanaceae are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (dry), closing them in aisles of 30-40 g / linear meter or 40-60 g / sq. m square. Feeding with a solution of natural yeast (100 g per 10 l of water) is effective. Consumption under the bush is 1.0-1.5 liters of solution.
Potatoes do not like fresh organic fertilizers and most of all during the growing season and the formation of the crop it needs phosphate and, especially, potash fertilizers.
Under the potatoes make all the necessary dose of fertilizer in the fall or directly under the planting of tubers. The best fertilizer is kemira potato or universal kemira. In their absence, nitrophoska is introduced under the planting of potatoes. The dose for landing is 60-80 g / sq. If direct fertilizer is used during planting, then the norm is 15-20 g per well. Fertilizers are mixed in the hole with the soil. After 3-4 weeks, they are fed with nitrofos or kemira at a dose of 30-40 g / sq. m. The following feeding is carried out in the phase of tuber growth.
Bean top dressing
Vegetable peas, beans, beans - crops that consume a large amount of nutrients per unit of crop formation. Therefore, they are usually fertilized throughout the growing season after 15-20 days with full fertilizer (nitrophoska, another complex fertilizer). Good effect on this group of plants, the drug "Giant".
Legumes are demanding that there is enough potassium in the soil, which is used by the crop to deliver nutrients to the emerging crop. It can be used for foliar top dressing mixed with potassium sulfate (1-2 tablespoons per bucket of water). After flowering, you can also use ash or an ash extract for feeding.
White cabbage, cauliflower and other species need increased amounts of nutrients, starting from the head formation phase.
Early cabbage is not fed. Middle and late feed 10-15 days after planting in open ground nitrophosic with the addition of trace elements. 3-4 tablespoons of fertilizer are diluted in 10 liters of water and watered the basal area along the contour of the plant. Following carry out watering and mulching. The second in the phase of the beginning of the waving of a head of cabbage is best done with animal or vegetable organics, but it is necessary with the addition of 20-30 g of superphosphate per bucket of a solution of mullein or bird droppings. Organics are bred in the ratio of 1 part of fertilizer to 10-15 parts of water. With a sequence of 3-4 weeks, another 2 foliar top dressings are carried out with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, using water-soluble superphosphate and potassium sulfate 20-25 g per bucket of water. It is easiest to feed the cabbage with universal kemira, crystalline or crystallon. These fertilizers, in addition to the basic elements, contain boron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, magnesium, necessary for the formation of a full head.
How to determine what the plant lacks?
Sometimes top dressing does not improve the condition of plants. In this case, the micronutrient culture is probably not enough. Their deficiency is easily determined by the state of the aboveground mass.
- Manganese deficiency is manifested in the yellowing of the edge of the leaf blades from old to young leaves,
- lack of iron, on the contrary, causes yellowing of the leaf between the veins; color change begins with young leaves and gradually yellowness spreads from above from young leaves to older ones located lower on the stem of the plant,
- total chlorosis of the leaf (leaf blade unnaturally light green in color) reveals a lack of nitrogen,
- magnesium deficiency is easily determined by the yellowing of the edge of the leaf blade with a red-violet hue; gradually the leaf becomes spotty and falls off,
- phosphorus deficiency appears in the form of a bronze shade of leaves, and potassium - violet-blue; the plant begins to lag behind in growth from other healthy bushes of the corresponding culture,
- a lack of zinc inhibits the development of the stem; the internodes are underdeveloped at the bush, the bush turns into a “socket”,
- the absence of calcium causes the death of the growth point; and sometimes it persists, but the ovaries fall,
- ovary falling is observed with a lack of boron.
Having determined the lack of one or another element in the plant by the state of appearance, the most correct is to contact the nearest laboratory and analyze the soil and plants. If this is not possible, then treat 1-2 plants with a solution of trace elements and trace the reaction of the plant. If the signs go away, it means that this particular trace element is missing.
Prepare the solution according to the recommendations and spray the plants or make the solution under the root. Remember that a violation of the ratio between the elements of the fertilizer also leads to a violation of their entry into the plant. Therefore, for feeding, it is better to use ready-made complex fertilizers, and not to prepare complex mixtures on your own.