Propagation of roses by budding is all that beginners need to know
A kidney transplant is a complex and responsible operation in general. Even if it is a rose bud. In this article I will tell the whole truth about grafting roses using the budding method. You will understand why usually gardeners do not plant roses, but prefer to buy already vaccinated in the nursery.
What is budding in theory?
Budding - This is a kidney transplant from a varietal plant to a rosehip rootstock.
In theory, a kidney transplant can be on any part of the trunk. And not only for rose hips. A rose can be grafted onto another rose.
Usually, a "donor" kidney transplanted onto the root neck of a dog rose survives. After that, the upper part of the dog rose is cut off, and a rose begins to develop on its roots.
For roses, a kidney transplant is a familiar procedure. The result is strong and hardy rose bushes that will begin to bloom a year or two after the operation.
Just? In theory, yes.
“Pitfalls” of rose vaccination by budding
I’ll tell you by the example of a kidney transplant of a cultivated rose on the root neck of an “uncultured,” wild rose.
1. The right dogrose
A strong one-year or ordinary two-year-old rosehip seedling acts as a “patient”. The operation is performed at the place where the stem passes into the root system. That is, it is no longer a stem, but also not a root - the root neck. The main requirement is the root neck is not thinner than 6 mm in diameter, but not wider than 10-11 mm.
Attention! Rosehip is suitable only specially grown from seeds. To plant a rose on a dog rose dug in a forest is one good chance for a thousand.
2. The corresponding kidney
We don’t take the kidney from the “donor” either. The cut of a cultivated rose must ripen so that the bark, although young, is already dense enough, then it will merge well with the stock.
The kidney may be “sleeping” if vaccinated in the summer or fall. A sleeping kidney will take root, wake up and give an escape only for the next year.
In the spring, they are inoculated with a kidney with a germinating eye, it will take root and will shoot a few weeks after the vaccination.
Attention! If the donor plant has different growth power with a stock, then vaccination is meaningless. For example, on a powerful fast-growing rosehip, a kidney from a miniature room rose does not take root.
3. Skill in the operation
The budding operation itself requires a special tool, sterility, proven skills and speed of execution. Seconds of delay - cut off the air, dry out, get dusty. The cut does not grow together if it has dried up or dirt has got into it. If the size of the cut bark does not match the size of the applied “shield”. If you cut the kidney deeper than you need - a piece of wood remaining on the scion helps to reject grafting.
Attention! Do not repeat my mistakes and do not try to wield a clerical knife. It is not suitable as a vaccine. My cut fingers and a bunch of thrown out badly cut kidneys will confirm this to you.
The grafted kidney must be fixed very tightly. A thin tape is suitable, but a special transparent film is certainly better.
So. Rosehip should be sown in advance. Go broke on grafting tool and film - is it worth it? It might be better to look for alternatives ...
Cuttings or budding - which is better?
Having bought my first roses in a nursery, I thought for a long time: what is such money for !? 500 rubles! I bought two-year-olds that already bloomed in the year of purchase.
Five years later, it occurred to me to multiply my bushes, and I began to experiment. The simplest is cuttings.
Read more about the cuttings in the article Summer cuttings of trees and shrubs - myths and real experience.
Three years later, I realized that I would not wait for normal bushes from the cuttings soon, and I did not rejoice at the percentage of failed ones. For example, from the planted 20 cuttings of different varieties to a three-year bush, I survived one. Moreover, he was much inferior in size and beauty to the mother planted grafted bush.
We need to be vaccinated, I decided.
To be honest, I don’t even remember exactly how many rosehip bushes I grew, and then messed up, how many times I cut my fingers, how many of my seemingly accepted grafted roses, in a year or two magically turned into a dog rose.
But I remember how many new bushes I had in five years. Exactly five. Although rose hips I sowed 40-50 bushes annually.
By the way, wild rose grows very poorly from seeds. Germination in the first year after removal of berries - on the strength of 10%.
Either I’ll cut off the kidney, or I will pick the rosehip wrong, or the wintering will be unsuccessful, or even the place of grafting from the root will break off for no apparent reason ... It's a shame.
I will say this: fostering is interesting, but you need to train and train ...
Re-grafting: new life of the old bush and flight for imagination
Training in a budding quite unexpectedly came in handy when my chic old rose completely did not recover after winter. Eight years she pleased me with flowering and now she wandered under cover. In the spring, all the shoots were black and did not show any hope. But the roots are alive.
I was lucky that the neighbor had a bush of exactly the same sort.
At the end of April, I scooped up the earth and washed the root neck. I cut a stalk from a neighbor’s bush - a well-wintered shoot of last year.
I found a place on the neck of my old rose, where the bark is “younger”. Armed with a vaccination knife, she boldly made a horizontal cut on the neck, and then from the bottom up — the vertical one. The result is the letter T.
Bending the bark in April is easy. Then, with a donor handle, with a single movement of the knife, she cut off a 3-centimeter shield (flap of the cortex) with a sprouting eye and immediately from the knife - into the cut!
I tightened the electrical tape firmly on top and bottom of the kidney. She sprinkled it with peat, covered it with a cut five-liter bottle, crossed it and for two weeks she tried not to even look that way. There were rains, i.e. watering at the highest level.
After the May holidays, holding my breath, I raked peat. The kidney has taken root and has already started to grow!
That's how my yellow climbing rose got a second life. Waiting for flowering.
Roses can also be propagated by layering. Read our detailed material Reproduction of ornamental and fruit crops by layering.
Why don't the kidneys take root?
Failures in budding roses come from a lack of experience, and also from the vagaries of the weather.
Attention! In nurseries of the middle strip roses are always planted in greenhouse conditions and only then do young grafted plants gradually accustom to winter.
Rose growers who like to experiment with different rose hips and different varieties of roses know: to find a successful stock for a particular variety - it takes tens of years. I chose the wrong dogrose - all the efforts in vain.
Professionals use proven combination of scion / stock.
I already wrote about the instrument and its cleanliness. Everything should be clean and fast, otherwise - collapse.
The most interesting: choose the right time!
By the way! Theoretically, you can plant a rose all year round.
In winter, roses are planted by professionals and mainly in the southern latitudes. I did not try.
It is easy to vaccinate in the spring, and the result - in two to three weeks - is obvious. However, if the spring is cold or rainy, the experiment will fail. In summer, you can plan budding before the second flowering wave. In the suburbs this is mid-July - early August. Again - much depends on the weather.
It’s more difficult to vaccinate in autumn, you have to guess the time three weeks before frosts. After grafting, immediately spud the plant high and with the onset of steady frost, without cutting off the dog rose, shelter for the winter.
Think about whether you need to study foster care?
Do you want a strong, strong, beautiful rose bush with your own hands without material investment? It's possible! Get ready for temporary investments and reserve a car of patience and nerves.
- You need to sow a dogrose and wait two yearsuntil he grows up. At the same time, dogrose should be weeded, fertilized and treated for diseases, protecting from pests.
- Then - budding and ... another year. So that from a grafted kidney a full-fledged bush develops that has successfully survived wintering.
- If successful, after 4 years you will have a young bush. To grow and please with abundant flowering, he will be able in 1-2 years.
Total from idea to desired result - 5-6 years!
Looking closely at the bushes in the nursery, I now think: why are they so cheap? 500 rubles. It's 4 years that you have to wait and invest your strength, knowledge, skills, time, money, so that this miracle grows!
I urge all tireless gardeners to try and master the budding. Just don’t expect it to be easy and simple. We, amateurs, will not succeed in simply picking up bread from professionals!